Rules of personal hygiene and sanitary food handling were not invented just to make your life difficult. there are good reasons for all of them.

FIRST we will start with the causes of food-borne diseases. then, when we get to the rules, you will understand why they are important. this will make them easier to remember and to practice. one effective system food-service establishments can use to ensure food safety is the (HACCP):


The (HACCP) practical system or program, will help you identify possible danger points & sets up procedures for corrective action.

Most food-borne illness is the result of consuming food that has been contaminated. to say a food is contaminated means it contains harmful substances not originally present in it.
In other words, contaminated food is food that is not pure.

There’s a various substances that can contaminate food and cause illness any of these Substances that that can cause illness or injury is called a HAZARD.

Food hazards are of four types:

  1. Biological hazards
  2.  Chemical hazards
  3. Physical hazards
  4. Allergens

*Notice: it was said most food-borne illness is. caused by eating food contaminated with foreign substances.

Some illness is caused not by contaminants but by substances that occur naturally in foods. these include plant toxins (toxin means “poison”), such as the chemicals in poisonous mushrooms, and certain natural food components to which some people are allergic.



The most important kind of biological hazards to consider are microorganisms.

A microorganism is a single-celled organism that can be seen only with a microscope.
Microorganism that can cause a disease is called a pathogen.

These Organisms sometimes occur in a clusters large enough to be seen by naked eye, they’re not usually visible. this is one reason why they can be really dangerous.

***Just because the food looks good doesn’t mean it is safe.

  • Four kinds of microorganisms that can contaminate food and cause illness:
  3. FUNGI

Most food-borne diseases are caused by bacteria, but the other types can be dangerous as well. Many of the measures we take to protect food from bacteria also help prevent the other three kinds of microorganisms.






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